A New Symphonic Organ

by Reynolds Associates



How times change!


My first studies of the organ and of organbuilding took place in an atmosphere of rediscovery. The orgelbewegung, the reform movement that began in the middle part of the twentieth century, had reached its apex. Many musicians had tired of the old "warhorses," a term that could aptly describe both the American Romantic organs and the music performed on them. In the 1960s and 70s, the direction was away from organs that were technologically advanced, and from the virtuoso music of organists such as Edward Lemare and Lynwood Farnam that had so enthralled our grandparents. In many ways, it was a "back to the future" movement that reacquainted us with the musical foundations of the organ.


Organists of the time rejoiced in the clean lines of a Bach fugue, played pretty much from end to end on the organ's plenum, unadulterated by "heavy-handed" registrational changes. The preference was for instruments that relied on the simple geometry and precise feel of mechanical action. The big warhorse organs of Skinner, Kimball, and other great American builders languished, their sound described as "dark," or "tubby," or (my personal favorite) "black smoke." Romantic organs that survived intact often did so because their owners were too poor to "update" them.


Then something remarkable happened. A few intrepid young musicians dusted off old consoles and started up dusty blowers, and discovered that not only were many of the old Romantic organs very musical, but they had emotive powers that had been forgotten in the frenzy for the Euclidean sounds of the eighteenth century. Suddenly, by the late 1980s, "symphonic" organs were "in" again.


Organists like Thomas Murray, presiding on the great Skinner organ at Yale University, and younger musicians like Ken Cowan, coaxed wonderful, expressive sounds from these instruments. They rediscovered a whole world of organ literature that we had virtually lost. They also discovered what many worshippers in the pews had known all along: that the warm ensembles and shimmering colors of these instruments were perfect for framing the worship experience.


Organ builders discovered that modern technology made these instruments more affordable, and that with sensitive voicing and careful planning, vintage voices could be incorporated into new organs, preserving history, offering richer tone palettes, and saving congregations money. Unless they are abused, quality organ pipes can last virtually forever, and retaining them is artistically, environmentally, and fiscally responsible. Reusing fine old pipework need not be a compromise; it is often an enhancement.
With the pendulum once again more or less centered, we can appreciate and enjoy a crisp tracker organ, well-built and well-voiced, as a tremendous work of art. Then a few doors down on the same street we can draw inspiration from the rolling thunder of a lovingly preserved American Romantic organ, and across the street, from a modern instrument that follows a new path sympathetic to both.


Enter Plainfield United Methodist Church, a healthy and growing congregation west of Indianapolis. Possibly no congregation in my experience has studied harder and worked more diligently to have the right organ – the organ of their dreams.


PUMC's first pipe organ was a small, two-manual instrument with eighteen sets of pipes. It had been constructed by a major builder, and had served the church for over forty years. The stoplist was very spare, and the organ was crammed into a small chamber on the right-hand side of the chancel, a space once occupied by the pastor's office. The installation was tonally problematic, and the organ was very difficult to service. The pipework was of generally good quality, but the instrument exhibited all the shortcomings of a small, (sort-of) classically-conceived organ, with none of the strengths.


We had serviced this organ for several years. Over time, it became obvious to us and to the church leadership that a serious intervention was needed to preserve Plainfield United Methodist's long tradition of great organ music. The organ was failing mechanically, and musically it was very limited. This became particularly obvious as the church and its diverse music program grew.


Plainfield UMC has a large choir, and while the music there on any given Sunday morning could be anything from a motet to a musical theater excerpt, the worship program is usually traditional. To accommodate everybody, they have three traditional Sunday services, youth worship, and a contemporary service which is held in another part of the building.
Michael Pettry, PUMC's director of music, is a man who exhibits flair in everything he does. As an organist, he makes each Sunday service an event. He does this not by showing off his skill, which is formidable, but by using the instrument to craft a musical environment that supports and enhances worship. He leads congregational singing with security and authority, making the congregation feel as though they are a part of a single choir when they sing together.


As it became clear that a major project would be needed for the organ, the church formed a committee that included Pettry, Vern Sullenger, Zoe Wiltrout, Les Taber, Paul Schreiner, organ scholar Jaime Carini, pastor Rev. Charlie Wilfong and former pastor Ted Blosser. Together, they explored all the possibilities that were open to them. They listened to electronic organs and pipe organs, large and small. For a few weeks, they even had a vintage Hammond B3 in the chancel!


They understood what they needed: an organ with variety, musical flexibility, color, and power. The new organ needed to fit within a sensible budget and a rather limited footprint.
One obvious course would have been to simply rebuild the existing organ, perhaps adding a few ranks or even digital voices. This would have required more space, and all on the committee saw it as an unacceptable compromise. Another possibility would have been to replace the pipe organ with an electronic instrument. Although they explored this option, the committee members could clearly "tell the difference."


Throughout our conversations, which went on for nearly a decade, Michael Pettry remained fixed on his vision of what was needed, and refused to compromise. Finally, in 2014, the time had come to carry through on the dream. After all their research and homework, we were delighted and honored when Plainfield's organ committee selected our firm for their big project.


One other important early decision was to hire concert organist Martin Ellis to consult on the initial design. Mr. Ellis made several key contributions to the tonal design and outfitting of the instrument.


The committee asked us to "dream big." Asking an organ builder to dream big is somewhat like asking a teenage boy to drive a little faster. The church's vision was to have a pipe organ that could be used in concert and for study, as well as for Sunday worship, and one that would make a striking visual statement in their worship space. As a millennial, Michael Pettry is part of the iPhone generation, and was open to the possibilities offered by modern technology.


No church has unlimited funds, but by far the most limiting factor in Plainfield's design was the amount of space that would be available. We began discussing a three- or four-manual organ in a chancel area that was already overcrowded on many Sundays.


We strongly felt that the organ, whatever its size, needed complete ensembles in all divisions, with plenty of color in the strings, flutes, and reeds. The organ committee was not averse to exploring some digital augmentation to fill out the specification in the space available, and were intrigued by the idea of incorporating some appropriate vintage pipe sounds into their new organ.


The previous installation plan, crowded as it was into a tiny corner, was not workable. Instead, we created a preliminary design that spread the new encased instrument across the back wall of the chancel. Working with our partners at Organ Supply Industries, we developed a visual concept that emphasized deep wood tones in the rift-sawn oak case, and the verticality of the 16' Contrabass pipes to create a stunning effect that draws the eye upward to the cross in its high central position.


As any organ builder will attest, the biggest headaches in a major project often come from things that have little to do with the organ. In this case, it was the projection screen. The existing screen was mounted on the brick wall behind the choir loft, right where the new Swell division would be. Everyone agreed that the screen was not attractive, but it was needed. So, along with designing a new organ, we needed to design a location for the screen that wasn't unsightly and didn't interfere with the sound.


The internal layout of the organ is arranged for ease of service and efficient utilization of space. One of the most obvious departures from common practice is the separation of the Swell into two separate enclosures with independent expression. From the congregation's perspective, the Swell I, which contains the ensemble stops and the Trumpet, is behind the shades on the left side of the case. The Choir division is opposite on the right side. The pipes of the Great are unenclosed atop the center of the case. The Swell II pipes are positioned under the Great behind an oak lattice.


The Swell II consists of foundation and color stops that are useful for accompaniment. This arrangement solves a common problem that organists frequently find. When the pipes are placed high enough in the room for good sound projection, they often speak over the heads of the singers, especially if the choir sings from a position close to the organ case. This makes it difficult for the choir to hear the organ. Pitches become unclear and rhythms muddled unless the organist compensates by slightly over-accompanying.
In the Plainfield organ, the Swell II gives the organist a selection of accompaniment voices that are at approximately the same level as heads of the singers. Since these voices produce warm sounds, they help to support the singers without overpowering them.


At this point, reader, you are surely chewing your nails worrying about that all-important projection screen. We decided to incorporate it into the case design. The screen is installed in a special recess in at the top of the wood lattice covering the Swell II division. When the electric screen is rolled up, it disappears completely into the case. When it is in use for announcements or sermon notes, it comes down over the lattice. Since the screen is acoustically transparent, whether it is up or down has no effect on the sound of the organ.
We also placed an unclosed antiphonal division on the rear wall of the sanctuary. Its main function is to help support congregational singing so its scaling and voicing are more typical of a small Great than of a distant ethereal "Echo."


David Reynolds's design for the antiphonal division places the flue pipes in a standard V diatonic layout, with the copper Trompette en Chamade above 4' C mounted horizontally to either side of the chest. The remaining twelve copper pipes are hooded in the center of the chest, looking much like a stand of sunflowers on the back wall of the church.
The pedal stops are in the façade and in the center of the case. We took advantage of the opportunity to share certain manual ranks with the Pedal, since doing so allowed us to give the instrument a broader tonal palette in the space available.


During the planning process, we had long discussions about the style and design for the new organ's console. Although the room is modern, the organ case is classically symmetrical. Ever diligent, Michael Pettry considered all the ideas and visited many of the large organs in the area specifically to try out the consoles. He finally opted for a console reminiscent of E. M. Skinner after visiting the Scottish Rite Cathedral in Indianapolis and seeing the old Skinner console, long since replaced, on display in the building's museum. The outer case of the PUMC console is constructed of quarter-sawn oak with a cherry interior.


The Reynolds organ at Plainfield is a celebration of old and new. Since the pipes of the church's previous instrument were scaled too small for the new Great, we repurposed most them and used them in the secondary divisions. For instance, the Great 8' Principal in the old organ became the Choir 8' Diapason in the new. Like all the "experienced" pipes that were used in the organ, these ranks were reconditioned and appropriately revoiced.


The new organ includes diapason ensembles from 8' (16' in the Great) through mixtures in all divisions. Those in the Swell and Choir are voiced somewhat more warmly than those in the Great.


An interesting feature of the organ is the "minor" principal ensemble in the Great. Often, the principal stops that carry congregational singing are too aggressive for choral use or for smaller registrational settings. In the new PUMC organ, the minor ensemble stops play the pipes of the 4' Octave at 8', and those of the 2' Fifteenth at 4', effectively furnishing an alternative ensemble that is two scales smaller than the main principal stops. When I first conceived of this idea, I congratulated myself for my ingenuity until I learned that Robert Noehren had done much the same thing fifty years ago! However the idea originated, it is quite effective.


We were also fortunate to be able to incorporate several sets of Estey organ pipes from the 1920s. These included an 8' Melodia that we transformed into a wonderful Hohlflute, and an 8' labial oboe in the Swell II that is a truly magnificent sound. Estey's "reedless reeds" were the product of master voicer William E. Haskell. The labial oboe is an interesting contrast to the conventional oboe, also in the Swell II. For organists that have endured the common Oboe Gambas of some other old builders, this stop is as elegant as they are ordinary.


The organ has four trumpets. Two of these, the Swell 8' Trumpet and the 8' Trompette en Chamade were built for us by Oyster Pipeworks, one of our important industry partners. In addition, Fred Oyster completely reconditioned the remainder of the reeds, which include an 8' Oboe, 8' Clarinet (E.M. Skinner), an 8' English Trumpet (E.M.S.), and an 8' Klein Trompette from the old organ. The main 8' Trumpet is in the Swell I, while the 8' English Trumpet is in the Choir, in the opposite wing. Although these voices are of nearly the same intensity, the new reed is brighter, while the Skinner reed has a warmer sound, almost that of a Tromba. Played together, they balance the Trompette en Chamade in the antiphonal division.


This fanfare trumpet is constructed of polished copper with beautifully flared bells. It is voiced to stand out but not to overwhelm the instrument. Powerful fanfare reeds are indeed thrilling, but their use can sometimes be limited to those festival occasions when the organist is willing to risk losing his job for their effect.
Strings and flutes in the organ are varied by scale and tone color. One characteristic of our tonal design is to offer both 8' open and stopped flutes, even if it means sharing a bass octave or providing a 4' borrowed from the 8.


The use of digital voices in a pipe organ remains controversial among organbuilders. While we do not use them in all our instruments, we feel that they can contribute to tonal flexibility if used properly. In this case, they allowed us to include tonal components that would have been otherwise impossible because of the tight space.


Primarily, the digital voices in this organ are stops that "stand behind" other sonorities, such as a digital celeste that is paired with a string of real pipes. In this organ, we also added digital voices for the Pedal 16' string and for the 32' and 16' Pedal Trombone. As a builder, I do not feel threatened by digital voices. They are simply another path to achieving an artistic result that satisfies our customers' needs. I often point out to customers that there is a big difference between a pipe organ with a few digital voices and an electronic organ with a few pipes!


Much of the flexibility of this organ can be attributed to the Peterson ICS4000 integrated control system, equipment that we use exclusively in our projects. We have installed more than three dozen of these robust systems, and have learned their capabilities. Organist Michael Pettry had several unique requests, which the ICS4000 allowed us to fulfill. These included momentary tremulants, sostenuto functions, and a divided pedal with adjustable divide point.


The new organ at Plainfield United Methodist Church integrates successfully into the chancel of the church building, with room for choir risers, seating, lectern, communion table and a concert grand piano. Its footprint actually takes up only slightly more space than that of the previous organ mainly because of wasted space that was reclaimed in the new design.
We are grateful to the congregation of PUMC, their organ committee and director of music Michael Pettry for their patience and support. We particularly want to thank Vern Sullenger, who volunteered to work alongside us nearly every day. If Vern ever decides to come out of retirement, he would make a great organ builder.


I also want to thank Jon Guy and his Avon-based construction company, Guyco. Jon and crew did the extensive chancel renovation to prepare for the new organ. After the organ was finished, they also mounted the large and heavy cross above the Great pipes.


Finally, I want to thank the church for inviting me to their annual fish fry in July. I know... All churches have fish fries. But this one is attended by thousands of people who came from all over central Indiana and lined up for blocks to taste what is truly the best fish I have ever eaten! Next year, they promise that we can eat our fish accompanied by organ music.
The congregation first heard their new organ in church on July 31, 2016. I have never seen such enthusiasm! After the services, I noticed that many came to the front of the church, gathering around the organ case and the console. Suddenly, I realized why. They were taking "selfies" with their new pipe organ!


Ken Cowan will play the dedication concert for the new organ at Plainfield United Methodist Church, Plainfield, IN, on Sunday, May 7, at 4:00 p.m. For information, visit the church's website at or call the church at (317)839-2319. Reynolds Associates, Inc., is on the web at



First United Methodist, Connersville, IN

Connersville Organ being Done to Perfection!


The organ at First United Methodist Church in Connersville, IN, is one tough cookie!  Unfortunately, the 1947 M.P. Möller organ got a bit overdone a couple of years ago.  A problem with the boiler, which is in the basement directly under the organ, filled the organ chambers and the console with steam.  Since the problem wasn't discovered for several hours, the organ was effectively "par-boiled."


Reynolds Associates was able to conserve the beautiful console and most of the pipes from this organ, and have used them to build a new instrument for First Church.  The process has been difficult, and has taken many months.  We constructed new windchests for the organ, including for a new exposed Great division in the choir loft, as well as all new winding.  While ten ranks of pipes in the new II Manual/25 rank pipe organ will be new, the remaining 15 ranks are conserved from the old organ.


These pipes required careful restoration after their steam bath.  The wood pipes, in particular, had to be repaired, reglued, and refinished.  Likewise, the console cabinet was completely stripped and refinished, and new manual keyboards and stop controls installed.  The new organ, like all large Reynolds projects, is controlled by a Peterson ICS4000® integrated control system.


The congregation of FUMC has been very patient during this long process, and they should be hearing their new organ for the first time later this spring!


Ball State University

   Way to Go, Raul! 

Raul Prieto taking the organ to the people in BarcelonaRaul Prieto taking the organ to the people in BarcelonaInternational concert organist, teacher of organ, and now, sidewalk musician!


Raul Prieto Ramirez doesn't believe the organ should always be hidden in churches or concert halls. Instead, visiting at home in Barcelona over the summer, Raul has taken his personal practice organ out onto the streets, giving impromptu concerts for a fascinated public.  Raul's technical prowess is impressive, but his passion for the organ - in all places and at all times - is what truly sets him apart as a performer and as a teacher.


We met Raul several years ago when he played a concert in Indianapolis.  Since then, we have become friends, and so we were delighted when he was able to secure a position on the faculty of Ball State University, following the retirement of Kirby Koriath. 


Ball State University is fortunate to have this young superstar on its music faculty.  And, if this picture is any indication, look for Ball State's organ program to explode!


Check out this YouTube video!






Okay, I'll admit it...  I am guilty of one offense that bothers me about websites.  I hate it when I look at a site and it hasn't been updated in a year or two or five.




Reynolds Associates has been so busy the past 18 months that I haven't kept you up to date.  So, this will be a bit like those letters you get in Christmas cards that update you about the sender and the sender's family.  When I look at the News section of the site, I can't believe how much I haven't shared.


First, let's update the jobs we've been working on.


St. Joseph Catholic Church in Shelbyville is now completed, and is a spectacular organ in a glorious room.  As you know, I started out try to blog the whole project.  I found that I couldn't keep up with the organ building, the running of the business, and writing meaningful blog updates.  I told you a lot about the process.  On a future job, I will share other parts of the process that didn't get told on the Shelbyville organ.  


The console at High Street UMC, Muncie, IN, following our renovation project.The console at High Street UMC, Muncie, IN, following our renovation project.We completed the renovation and expansion of the 4-manual E.M. Skinner organ at High Street United Methodist Church in Muncie, IN.  This organ, which started out life in 1931 as an organ of 40 ranks, went through a devastating gas explosion in 1978, and was only partially rebuilt at the time.  Sadly, many of the original Skinner ranks were lost.  We redesigned the organ in 2008 and did the project in two phases.  In '08, we rebuilt the console and the north chamber (Swell and Positiv).  In 2014, we rebuilt the south chamber, containing the Great and Choir, and also the Echo chamber.  The organ is now 74 ranks including pipes by Skinner, Hook & Hastings, and several new stops we added.  All the pipes were voiced using the Skinner material as a guide.  The effect of this organ, which was rededicated in the spring of 2015 by Raul Prieto Ramirez, is stunning.  Another happy circumstance is that Robert Rouch, one of our associates who put in a lot of time and hard work on the High Street organ, was hired by the church as organist.  Robert is a student of Raul, and the congregation at High Street seems delighted with his work


High Street Fanfare TrumpetHigh Street Fanfare TrumpetThe High Street organ now has a magnificent Fanfare Trumpet (a Trompette en Chamade) on the back wall of the sanctuary.  This beautiful set of solid copper pipes was built for us by Fred Oyster of Oyster Pipeworks, one of the firms that we treasure as colleagues.  


Presently, we are in the midst of two major projects, at First United Methodist Church in Connersville, IN, and a new and very innovative 4-manual pipe organ for Plainfield United Methodist Church in Plainfield, IN.  I will write separate stories about these organs and post them here.


Meanwhile, I have struggled with a serious osteoarthritis problem.  It seems that going up and down ladders for forty years, and possibly being just a bit more portly that I should be, have ruined both my knees.  On January 11 of this year, I had total knee replacement of my left knee at Ball Memorial Hospital in Muncie.  The surgery was done by Dr. Jay Matchette of Central Indiana Orthopedics.  I must say that the whole experience, which could have been really grim, was excellent.  I could not have had better care!  I enjoyed it SO MUCH that I'm going back to have the right knee done on April 20!  I have recovered rapidly from the first surgery, and hopefully the second will go just as well.  I can work again now as long as I'm careful for awhile.  So, I'm letting the younger guys do the heavy lifting while I recover. There has been plenty of voicing work to do at the shop, and a lot to do in the office, so don't worry about me: I'm keeping busy!


As you may have noticed, I have also published a book.  It is the "biography" of a pipe organ - the first pipe organ I rebuilt, in fact.  Before you think, "yawner!," it's really not.  One friend remarked that the Barley Memorial Organ is sort of a "Forrest Gump" figure.  It sees the history of a community and world, it is part of that history, and that history affected it as well.  The book is available from, at








St. Joseph's Catholic Church, Shelbyville, IN

Now, Follow the Construction

of a New Pipe Organ

from Start to Finish!

Thad ReynoldsThad ReynoldsI have always wanted to document the production of a new pipe organ from start to finish, with photographs and descriptions.  This would let our customers, and our potential customers, see what is really involved in building or renovating a pipe organ, and what goes on for all those months of work.


A blog seems to be a useful way to do this.  By going to, you can follow the building or our new organ at St. Joseph's Catholic Church in Shelbyville, IN, on our blog, Wild Air.  Here, I will periodically tell what's going on, including photos of the process.  I will not post on any particular schedule, but will add material as things happen.  If you subscribe to Wild Air, you'll get a notification every time I post something new.  You can also go back and look at previous postings, and read some of the other interesting posts that appear on the blog.







Plainfield United Methodist Church, Plainfield, IN

   New Reynolds Organ

   for PUMC!

We are delighted to announce that we have signed a contract with Plainfield United Methodist Church in Plainfield, IN for a new three-manual, 44-rank symphonic pipe organ for the church's sanctuary.  The decision comes after years of research, and an intensive effort to communicate to the congregation both the problems and deficiencies with the small existing organ, and the expanded opportunities a new pipe organ could provide.






First Friends Meeting, Noblesville, IN


The First Friends organ was originally installed in First Presbyterian Church in Monticello, IN, where it was badly damaged in the 1974 "Super Outbreak" of tornadoes.The First Friends organ was originally installed in First Presbyterian Church in Monticello, IN, where it was badly damaged in the 1974 "Super Outbreak" of tornadoes.

(from the concert program)


The organ at First Friends Church is a story of two remarkably durable survivors.


The organ was originally built by the Wicks Organ Company for First Presbyterian Church in

Monticello, IN. Although the exact date is unknown, the organ was probably built in the

period between the two world wars. Research has revealed that several sets of pipes may have

actually originated as part of a 1905 Moller organ that

preceeded the Wicks at First Presbyterian.


On the afternoon of April 3, 1974, the largest outbreak

of tornadoes in the twentieth century hit the midwest.

One of the largest of these plowed through

Monticello, nearly leveling the town and inflicting

heavy damage on the church.





First Christian Church, Flora, IN

First Christian Celebrates 100;

Organist JoAnn Smith Celebrates 90

Flora Organist JoAnn Smith at the console.Flora Organist JoAnn Smith at the console.It is really fun to tell you about one of our very favorite churches, and one of our very favorite organists, both of whom have reason to celebrate this spring.


First Christian Church, in the homey small town of Flora, IN, celebrates its 100th anniversary on Sunday, June 22, with a special service and an organ concert. 


Even more fun, though, is telling you about our most senior church musician, who has probably played the organ longer than anybody we know.  Last Sunday, JoAnn Smith and her husband, Jack, celebrated their 90th birthdays with a party hosted by the church.  These two sweethearts were born only one day apart!  JoAnn has played the organ for over 70 years!  That's a LOT of Doxologies!


JoAnn continues to play regularly at FCC.  When we were rebuilding their organ in 1998, JoAnn suffered a broken hip.  But in typical style, she recovered and was soon back on the bench!


What a trooper!


Congratulations to JoAnn, Jack, and all the members of First Christian Church in Flora!





    First United Methodist Church, Connersville, IN

  Visual Design Unveiled for

  Connersville Organ



The Trustees of First United Methodist Church have approved our visual design for their new Reynolds pipe organ.


  Site work will begin in late July with the removal of the Moller organ console for refinishing and restoration.  Construction of the new windchests and other components will begin later in 2014, following completion of construction for the new Reynolds organ for St. Joseph Catholic Church in Shelbyville.  Completion of the Connersville organ is planned for the spring of 2015.


The design for the new Connersville organ will bring the principal chorus of the Great division to the rear center of the choir loft, where it will have the advantage of the curved back wall of the loft to project the sound into the nave of the church.  These pipes will be polished tin.  The remainder of the Great division, including the flute, strings, and reeds, will be in the present pipe chamber to the left of the choir loft.  These stops will be under expression.


First United Methodist is an exciting church, and we are excited to be building a new pipe organ for them.  In fact, we can't wait to hear it!





First Friends Meeting, Noblesville, IN

Major Project at First Friends Noblesville

Reynolds Associates constructed this new pipe display for First Friends Church in Noblesville, INReynolds Associates constructed this new pipe display for First Friends Church in Noblesville, INThe Quaker meetinghouse in Noblesville, IN is home to a Wicks pipe organ.  Reynolds Associates has tuned and serviced this older 9-rank instrument for several years.  During that time, we have had many conversations with organist Joe Roberts about prospects for several much-needed improvements to the instrument.













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